We at Hyfe, Inc., are a company devoted to working on tools to better understand the importance of cough. It is Hyfe’s intention in the future to seek regulatory approval for medical products that analyze cough in order that they may be used to diagnose, monitor, and facilitate better treatment of respiratory illnesses.
Doctors evaluate cough in a lot of ways. You can tell your doctor about how the cough feels and other related symptoms. You can also mention what you think might have triggered the cough. But, an essential first clue for doctors is whether the cough is productive or nonproductive. Read on to learn what makes a cough productive or nonproductive. We will also tackle the unique causes of each type of cough and their treatment.
A productive cough brings up mucus or other fluids, including blood. It produces a gurgling sound. Most coughs (like the common cold and flu) will disappear after a few days. However, a productive cough can last more than a few weeks. Symptoms involve fever, greenish-yellow phlegm, and shortness of breath.
Here are some lung conditions that are associated with a productive cough:
Also known as a dry cough because of the “scratchy” or “tickling” sensation associated with it, the nonproductive cough does not bring up any mucus or secretions. Moreover, this cough tends to irritate the throat and other airways.
A dry cough could be indicative of several conditions. While a cold is a common cause of dry cough, this could also be a sign of:
A productive cough is the same thing as a wet cough. When your chest is congested, typically due to an infection, you can hear a rattling sound while breathing.
While a wet cough arises when sputum is in the airways, a dry cough has no mucus at all. Hence, you can call it a nonproductive cough. It usually occurs due to inflammation of the lungs or airways. A chronic nonproductive cough may indicate asthma, GERD, or a cold, to give a few examples.
A general cold or flu can produce both types of mucus (wet and dry). In contrast, patients suffering from COVID mainly experience a dry cough. However, a wet cough may occur rarely.
Asthma is a condition that typically involves airway constriction. Symptoms include tightness or chest pain, shortness of breath, stridor, wheezing or coughing attacks, etc.
Although asthma-related coughs can be both productive and nonproductive, most asthmatics have a dry cough. For example, a chronic dry cough is the main symptom of cough variant asthma (CVA).
When mucus accumulates in your sinuses, it tends to drip down to the back of your throat. This fluid movement is called a postnasal drip. The nasal membranes produce excessive mucus whenever you have colds or seasonal allergies. Moreover, this type of mucus is watery and runny, persistently dripping down your throat, causing an itchy sensation that can trigger a cough.
Other symptoms of postnasal drip include:
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a type of chronic acid reflux. GERD happens when the lining of the esophagus – the passage between mouth and stomach – is irritated by acid backflow from the stomach. The irritation and inflammation can trigger your cough reflex.
Symptoms of GERD include:
When you experience a common cold, symptoms usually last less than a week. But, a cough may linger long after other symptoms have disappeared or improved (up to two months). This residual cough might result from airway irritation or hypersensitivity after a viral illness.
Heart failure is a condition where the heart muscles lose their ability to pump blood effectively. This condition has several possible symptoms, notably persistent or dry cough.
Environmental pollutants can irritate your airways. These include pollen, smoke, dust, pollution, mold, etc. Even clean air that is too dry or too cold can trigger a dry cough in some people.
ACE inhibitors are prescription drugs that lower your blood pressure. However, one of this drug class’ most common side effects is precisely a dry cough. According to Harvard Health, around 20 percent of people who take ACE inhibitors experience dry coughing.
Also known as pertussis, whooping cough causes a severe dry cough. The cough is accompanied by a high-pitched “whooping” sound when inhaling. This sign is more common in young or unvaccinated children. However, teens or adults with decreased immunity may also get infected.
A condition where a lung collapses due to deflation is known as pneumothorax. This lung collapse can happen either independently or due to a chest injury. Pneumothorax can lead to shortness of breath and sudden chest pain. Occasionally, persistent dry cough may also point to cancer. Lung cancer-related coughs usually do not disappear. They may also change over time (e.g., become more painful, sound differently).
You should visit your doctor if:
Your doctor may ask for the history and symptoms. Please remember the cough medicines or cough suppressants you took during this time. Do not worry if your practitioner proceeds towards a diagnostic procedure or chest x-rays. This testing will help plan the appropriate course of treatment and specific medical care instructions.
Treatment of productive and nonproductive cough depends on the underlying cause.
Each condition requires appropriate treatment:
For a productive cough caused by a cold, it is easier to expel mucus using an expectorant. Above all, follow your doctor or pharmacist’s advice to find an appropriate and safe over-the-counter (OTC) expectorant.
Definition: Over-the-counter medicine (OTC) are medications you may buy without a prescription. These are safe and effective as long as you follow the label’s indications.
A nonproductive cough can be challenging to deal with due to the vicious cycle. In other words, an undesirable feedback loop of oversensitive airways, irritation, and more coughing. Here are a few ways you can alleviate the discomfort:
A productive or nonproductive cough can be annoying and disruptive to your daily routine. However, knowing the underlying cause can help your doctor arrive at the correct diagnosis. Finally, this will lead to the most appropriate treatment course to provide relief.